• Provides insights about how alleles (genotypes) in certain genes affect the metabolism of some medications/drugs that are commonly prescribed. In this way, your healthcare provider can better determine what medication to prescribe to you that is most effective and will cause no or little adverse effects.

  • In this report, the medications/drugs will be displayed according to drug class with your drug metabolizing status, effect on efficacy and adverse effects/safety concerns if any.            

    • CYP2C19 gene. The CYP2C19 gene is predominately expressed in the liver and encodes an enzyme that contributes to the metabolism of a large number of clinically relevant drugs and drug classes. Drugs Metabolized: Blood thinners (clopidogrel), Muscle relaxants (carisoprodol), Antidepressants and analgesics (amitriptyline), SSRI antidepressants (sertraline), Antifungals (voriconazole).

    • CYP3A5 gene. The CYP3A5 gene is expressed in the liver, intestine and extrahepatic tissue and is one of the cytochrome P450 enzymes that facilitates the metabolism and elimination of drugs. Drugs Metabolized: Immunosuppressants (tacrolimus, sirolimus), HIV antiviral (atazanavir), Sedatives (midazolam).

    • SLCO1B1 gene. The SLCO1B1 gene encodes a protein that mediates the active transport of various anionic compounds, such as the statin drugs, into the liver cells. Drugs Metabolized: Statins (simvastatin, rosuvastatin, pravastatin, and other statin drugs).

    • DPYD gene. The DPYD gene expressed in many cell types throughout the body, with liver and peripheral blood being the major sites. The DPYD enzyme is involved in the metabolism of fluoropyrimidine chemotherapeutic drugs. Drugs Metabolized: Chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, capecitabine).

    • VKORC1 gene. The VKORC1 gene encodes the VKORC1 (Vitamin K epoxide reductase) protein, which is a key enzyme in the Vitamin K cycle. Vitamin K is an important cofactor for several coagulation factor proteins needed for clotting. Warfarin s a commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant used to prevent thromboembolic diseases by acting as an inhibitor of VKORC1 enzyme activity, leading to a reduced amount Vitamin K cofactor. Depending on the genotype, an individual may be more sensitive or more resistant to warfarin therapy. Drugs Metabolized: Blood thinners (warfarin).

    • OPRM1 gene. The OPRM1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called the mu (μ) opioid receptor, which is part of the body’s internal system for regulating pain, reward, and addictive behaviors. When opioids attach (bind) to the receptors, the interaction triggers a series of chemical changes within and between neurons that lead to feelings of pleasure and pain relief. Drugs Metabolized: Opioids (Fentanyl, Afentanyl, Tramadol, Morphine).